Saturday, February 8, 2020

Valentines Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Valentines - Essay Example Nelly is an athletic and a rugby player in her school. For this reason, she has a buildup body that have developed out of his hobbies. She argues that she required weight to enable her play well and protect herself from other players. Moreover, being athletic make ones develop a lot of muscle out of the many exercises and to cope with the demand of the sport (London, 2015). Nelly says that she was astonished for her date to offer a gift suggesting she cut on weight (London, 2015). She argues that that was the least she expected because she always imagined that her friend like and support her involvement in sports. Nelly says that it was her resilient that made her resist knocking him down and throwing him out of the house (London, 2015). This made her cancel the date and dump his date the following day. Katie Ford is a 33 years business woman (London, 2015). She says that she is always excited to enjoy valentine day with her date. However, on February 14, 2014 she experienced a traumatic encounter after she and her date was booked for being too drunk. That evening they went to buy drink, so they have a romantic night. However, her date started drinking and promised her of so many things he would do for her. Katie though hesitant for the man ego, agreed let him have a chance. However, they did not last long on their romantic date before Katie date got too much drunk and started fighting with strangers for no apparent reason. The commotion led the owner of the restaurant to call the police to calm down Katie date. Nevertheless, the police had no choice, but to arrest the unruly man and booked him overnight until the next day. Katie romantic moment had to end and walk in the dark to her house. She says she had a walk with her high heels alone in the middle of the night because his date was not man enough. She broke up with him the

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Shakespeares Purpose in Subverting the Moral Universe in Hamlet Essay Example for Free

Shakespeares Purpose in Subverting the Moral Universe in Hamlet Essay he inverted moral universei in Shakespearean drama was a demonstration of the increased reality that ancestral and collective foundations were losing their sanctified nature. Key upheavals were taking place and the world of Shakespeare was evolving from a time where the earth was still the center of the universe,ii towards a life of societal instability. Like all playwrights, Shakespeares ideas for plot were partly a reflection of the world in which he lived. The enlightenment was a time where religion was giving way to science and economic gain. It would be unreasonable for such a reflective dramatist to omit the implications and limitations of the times in his work. The regulations and boundaries for human conduct are not always clear, especially in times of fluctuation. While I would not maintain moral universe is a dominant theme in Shakespeares work, I do argue that it is a somewhat significant current running through many of his plays. To define any one moral universe in the work is folly, each play deserves many separate definitions. Collective morality goes through an alteration according to the circumstances of each group of characters. Situational ethics play a role in determining the behavior of Shakespeares characters, especially in the history plays. To ascribe one particular moral universe to any work does not take into account the perspectives of all the major characters. While we are not privy to the thoughts of all characters, some plays reveal them more clearly. The Moral Universe In Hamlet Hamlet shows Shakespeares belief in the potential of human beings to achieve spiritual and moral transcendence and social harmony through reasoned thought and proper action. The play presents the individual as trying to make choices in shaping his or her own fate.iii This quote, taken from a lecture by Maria Simms, identifies Shakespeares intentions in the character of Hamlet. The play presents a parallel of the playwrights objective. Mad or no, Hamlet knows the difference between ethical and unethical and is committed to shaping his moral universe to that end. Shakespeare, torn between the dark ages of Elizabethan traditions and the glow of enlightenment, uses this indecision in the makeup of the character of Hamlet. The inversion of the moral universe takes place in the murders within the family, the unnaturalness of the mother remarrying the uncle, and old friends turning traitor. The quote, My two schoolfellows. Whom I shall trust as I will adders fangs, is a clear example of Hamlets world. His father is dead, his mother is lost to him, he is seeing ghosts, and he cannot trust those around him. Shakespeares purpose in subverting the moral universe was to accentuate the unnaturalness of the acts and the appearance of the ghost. In the first act of Hamlet, the appearance of the ghost character is problematic. When Shakespeare wrote it; English religious theology was not recognizing the state of purgatoryiv. Granted, the locale of the play is in Denmark, however, it is a sensitive point and conceivably that is why after Hamlet sees the ghost, Shakespeare permits his character go wholly round the bend. The spirit becomes the influence that upsets the balance of the moral universe. It is the most unnatural character in the play. The accusation of murder is the real moral question, from the ghosts viewpoint. If it were that Gertrude had remarried too soon, the ghost would have been seeking revenge for that transgression as well. The purgatory in Shakespeares play is a blatant upset in the conventional universe of that era. Hamlet furthermore has a dilemma, he has to believe the manifestation and the charge made by the spirit, and he cannot have absolute belief without sufficient evidence. One can assume that the audience was also questioning the likelihood of a ghost. Only when Hamlet establishes confirmation can the play advance; otherwise, we are trapped in purgatory along with the ghost. Other instances of inverted moral universe are: the mother marrying the uncle in haste, friends betraying each other, the wrongful murder of Polonius, and the King sentencing Prince Hamlet to death. These situations proceeded from the act of murder of Hamlet Senior. The inversion happens as the result of an unacceptable or un-natural act. What often happens in Shakespearian plays (and tragedies in particular) is the disordered universe exists because of injustice, wrong choices by the protagonist, and un-natural acts of murder. When the inversions transform back to natural order, resolution can take place. The transformations emphasize the redemption of the hero and the moral universe. The advancement of Hamlet marches through a troubled equilibrium of the natural world to a resolution where Fortinbras restores the element of order. An inversion of the moral universe back to order is a manifestation of the same journey that the protagonist had to go through. For example: Henry IV dies and order is restored through his son, Hamlet is killed and Fortinbras restores order, Romeo and Juliet both die and order is restored through the prince. Each of their fatalities see all of them ascend beyond themselves: that is, to become righteous. Simply put, the inversion serves for the dramatic representation of the salvation of the central character and the moral universe. The Moral Universe in the Henriad In Richard II, the moral universe still based its identity upon kingship predicated by God. Richard II is considered a moral character because of his divine rights. It would not necessarily matter if he were a proficient ruler, because his appointment as king is firmly grounded in absolutism. According to Wayne Jackson of The Christian Courier, This concept affirms that there is an absolute, objective standard of right and wrong. v When Richard II usurps the line of succession as set forth in Biblical tones, the moral universe starts to wobble. The Duke of York cautioned Richard II that there were, in fact, limits to what he could justify to his people, You lose a thousand well-disposed hearts, he warned. After Richard II disregards this good council and proceeds on his course of action, he begins to doubt himself. This hesitation is the opening Shakespeare provided for Bullingbrook and his character had limitations as well. In this moral universe, Bullingbrook cannot cleanly seize the throne. When Richard came down to the base court, he essentially abdicates the supremacy of the throne and provided Shakespeare with a moral universe that spins out of control. Nihilism became the new order and rules for behavior were vague from that point on. The Henriad is the clearest illustration of situational ethics in the works of Shakespeare. In his plays, the act of killing a king or subverting a kings power (A Midsummer Nights Dream) destabilizes the universe. In addition, each character feels justified in his or hers own actions. There is a lack of a conventional biblical moral universe in Henry IV, I and II; the persistent motif in these plays is that most of the characters are bent on servicing their own ends. The reality that an archbishop would consent to a revolt against the ruler is an obvious indication that the state of the moral universe is on its head. This might not have happened had Henry IV been a ruler by divine right. As the head of state, he set the tone of the universe. Since he interrupted the lines of succession; he left himself open to more of the same when his own past came back to haunt his rule. The constant uprisings are also taking place in Shakespeares sector. During the performance of the plays, Elizabeth was fending off rebellions of her own. The characters in the Henriad also are deficient in morality. As in Measure for Measure, most of the characters are flawed, not just the hero. Both Hotspur and Henry fail to see their moral shortcomings. Integrity crumbles because the idea on which it is based is shallow. In Henry IV, part II, the moral universe is political in nature. The moral criterion of the crown is not only the progress back to proper succession, but political effectiveness as well. The individual weakness of a figure vital in the public sphere has great repercussions in society. Hal cared about his image and coldly calculated when he would show his true nature. He was trickster, deceiver, and deliverer based upon the situational moral principles. It is ironic that he was revered as The Ideal Christian King, clearly he broke the law during his illegal activities with Falstaff. Like his father before him, he was artful in the use of his friends and then shed them when they no longer served a valuable purpose. In the Henriad, Shakespeare allows the audience to decide upon each characters moral behavior and whether or not it was justified. There are many facets and differing moral universes in this group of histories. Hals youthfulness is the agent of change Shakespeare uses in the Henriad. It is only when he sheds his youthful friends, immoral activities, and shallow ideals that he can move forward and re-unite his country in battle against the French. This is the true restoration of the moral universe. If he had simply assumed the crown when his father died, without the journey of shedding his past, the moral universe could not have reverted to its natural state. Shakespeare also used the device of character conflict when depicting the many conflicting moral universes. Characters feel the pull in different ways. It is easy to imagine Hal as that gentleman with the angel Henry IV, on one shoulder (tarnished though is fathers image is) and the devil Falstaff on the other. Indeed, it is only through Henry IVs realization that he has taken the crown illegally that resolution is possible. Shakespeare used this kind of introspective journey as a theme in many plays. Without his fathers epiphany, Hal would undoubtedly been easily swayed to the dark side. Henry IV achieves redemption through his understanding and remorse and that sets the moral universe in enough order that Hal is in a position to make his choice. Hal serves as the equilibrium between the two contradictory characters of Henry IV and Falstaff. Comparison of the Moral Universe in the Henriad, Hamlet, and Measure for Measure In both Measure for Measure and Henry V, the rulers are not about to let social immorality be part of their rule. Shakespeare deals with Angelo and Falstaff in a like manner. It is clear that these men, who once enjoyed the ear of royalty, are going to be Shakepeares scapegoats for people who have strayed morally in life and in rule. The character of Falstaff is a thorny one, He is a disgrace to knighthood, and one might say that his code of honor is simply, CHEERS! He receives the penalty by Henry V for his transgressions with Hal during his youth. His sideways attempt to grasp power by ingratiating himself with Hal does not serve him well. His character is a discordant note in the rule of Henry IV, and moral harmony is restored when this note is silenced in Henry V. Again, in Henry V we see a lack of moral consciousness, or at the very least a bid for moral right. Henry V will not invade without the archbishops proof with right and conscience, that his claim to France is valid. Nevertheless, this supposedly moral outlookvi is tainted by the truth that lies beneath, in order to keep order in his country (forestall uprisings); he needs to get his subjects to focus on issues abroad.vii Shakespeares characters deviate from their expected social roles. In Measure for Measure the characters are trying to either save their own skins or their virtue. Similar to the Henriad, it is all blurred confusion over what actually constitutes a collective moral universe. There is further complexity of characters in Measure for Measure, we observe how they each wrestle for justice in their individual ways. Measure for Measure and Hamlet differs from the Henriad because there is more at stake ethically. The war in Measure for Measure is the fight to restore the values of the citizens, the justice they feel they deserve, and proper rule to the society. Each character is concerned with justice in his or her own moral universe. Aleksander Bobko, at a conference on Unjust Structures at the Von Hugel Institute in Cambridge noted, Justice, then, is a kind of the objective measure of things, its ultimate basis being Logos which, contrary to Chaos, sets the world in order. In Measure for Measure, when each character receives justice, the moral universe is set to rights. Shakespeare neatly ties up at the end of the play, with no problematic threads left out. Hamlet also seeks justice for the death of his father and receives it when he kills his uncle. CONCLUSION The overturned moral universe in Shakespearean performances of Measure for Measure, Hamlet ,and the Henriad was a display of evolution from an established religiously sanctioned rule to an enlightened time. Shifting expectations created moral ambiguity and a shared moral universe was hard to ascertain. Shakespeare used his plays as a mirror of the change his society was going through in the choice of his plots, character conflict, and moral inconsistencies. Humanity was moving away from absolutism to relativism and nihilism. Situational ethics played a strong role in his work in the lives and choices of his characters. Instead of using magic as the weight to unbalance the universe, he used morality and ethics as literary devices to throw his created worlds into chaos. When the moral universe was out of order, the rules of society became indistinct. Shakespeare forced certain characters to undertake journeys for enlightenment to restore the moral universe. His function in destabilizing the moral universe was to emphasize the unnaturalness of the actions of his characters. i Term moral universe introduced by Professor Tomkins, Fall 2003 ii Donahue conversation iii Simms lecture Effect of the Reformation on the Renaissance in England iv Tom Bishop http://www.shaksper.net/archives/1998/1276.html SHAKSPER, the international electronic conference. v A Critical Look at Situation Ethics by WayneJackson. vi How moral is war, consider who gains, a few titled men are the only people who will actually benefit along with a host of knights, who fight for glory and pay in their protected Armour. But the reality is that the serfs will be the one to pay- their lands taxed, their farms and villages burnt and the men killed. All because they live in the region of certain lords, they will fight, no matter what the cost. Their situation remains static no matter who wears the crown, until they get a king who knows how to avoid war, restore a collective moral universe, and rule as a political leader instead of a barbarian. (Wendt) vii Tomkins lecture, November 2003. Works Cited Oxford English Dictionary. Second Edition. 1989 (ed. J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner), Additions 1993-7 (ed. John Simpson and Edmund Weiner; Michael Proffitt), and 3rd ed. (in progress) Mar. 2000- (ed. John Simpson). OED Online. Oxford University Press. http://dictionary.oed.com Hacker, Diane A Writers Reference. 5th ed. Boston New York: Bedford/ST. Martins 2003 Murfin, Ross and Ray, Supryia The Bedford Glossary Of Critical and Literary Terms: Second Edition. Boston and New York: Bedford/St. Martins. 2003 The Riverside Shakespeare: Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston New York, 1997. Jackson, Wayne. A Critical Look at Situation Ethics 1999. 1 Mar. www.christiancourier.com/feature/March99.htm Simms,Maria. Introduction to Shakespeare lecture. http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/hmcs/human/writing/introwrittext/lectureNotes/Topic2Hamlet.html Christian Courier A Critical Look at Situation Ethics: Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston New York, 1997. Donahue, William. Personal interview. 15 November. 2003 Tomkins, Ken. Shakespeare Lectures. Sept. Nov. 2003 Bobko, Aleksander. Evolution of the concept of justice-from objective measure to aesthetic evaluation. June 2003 Conference. Transforming Unjust Structures: Capabilities and Justice. Von Hugel Institute St Edmunds College, Cambridge.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparison of Seven Beowulf Translations Essay -- comparison compare c

Comparison of Seven Beowulf   Translations    There is not unanimity among Beowulf translators concerning all parts of the text, but there is little divergence from a single, uniform translation of the poem. Herein are discussed some passages which translators might show disagreement about because of the lack of clarity or missing fragments of text or abundance of synonyms or ambiguous referents.    After the Danish coast-guard meets and talks to Beowulf, the guard then begins his next speech with a brief maxim or aphorism:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Aeghwaepres sceal scearp scyldwiga  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   gescad witan, worda ond worca,  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   se pe wel penced. (287-289)    T.A. Shippey comments in â€Å"The World of the Poem† that :      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Translating this ought not to be difficult†¦. The problem here is caused by the fact that proverbs are not merely linguistic phenomena†¦. the hidden factor is the extralinguistic frame; we have been taught in childhood when to use proverbs, what their metaphors mean, who to say them to, and how to take them. It is this nonverbal knowledge that we need to be able to understand the coastguard’s ‘gnome.’ Reluctance to reconstruct such intangibles and dogged staring at the text have led literary critics into controversy (Shippey 34).    So let’s cross-reference six translators and determine how serious a discrepancy exists here. Howell D. Chickering translates the troublesome part of the passage:   â€Å"must know the distinction between words and deeds, keep the difference clear† (Chickering 65). E. Talbot Donaldson: â€Å"who thinks well must be able to judge each of the two things, words and works† (Donaldson 6). Kevin Crossley-Holland: â€Å"one whose mind is ... ... multiple synonyms, vague references, etc.    BIBLIOGRAPHY   Alexander, Michael. Beowulf A Verse Translation. New York: Penguin Books, 1973. Chickering, Howell D. Beowulf A dual-Language Edition. New York: Anchor Books, 1977. Crossley-Holland, Kevin, trans. Beowulf The Fight at Finnsburh, edited by Heather O’Donoghue. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Donaldson, E. Talbot, trans. Beowulf The Donaldson Translation, edited by Joseph Tuso. New York, W.W.Norton and Co., 1975. Heaney, Seamus. Beowulf, A New Verse Translation. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 2000. Rebsamen, Frederick. Beowulf A Verse Translation. New York: Harper-Collins Publishers, 1991. Shippey, T.A.. â€Å"The World of the Poem.† In Beowulf – Modern Critical Interpretations, edited by Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987..

Monday, January 13, 2020

Literature Search

Grap, Mary. ,Munro, Cindy. , Hummel, Russel. , Jessica. , Elswick, and Sessler Curtis. 2005. Effect of Backrest Elevation on the Development of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. AACN. Retrieved from ajcc. aacnjournals. org on March 3, 2012. Abstract †¢ Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common complication of mechanical ventilation. Backrest position and time spent supine are critical risk factors for aspiration, increasing the risk for pneumonia. Empirical evidence of the effect of backrest positions on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, especially during mechanical ventilation over time, is limited. Objective To describe the relationship between backrest elevation and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. †¢ Methods : It is a nonexperimental, longitudinal, descriptive design was used. The Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was used to determine ventilator-associated pneumonia. Backrest elevation was measured continuously with a transdu cer system. Data were obtained from laboratory results and medical records from the start of mechanical ventilation up to 7 days. †¢ Results Sixty-six subjects were monitored (276 patient days).Mean backrest elevation for the entire study period was 21. 7 °. Backrest elevations were less than 30 ° 72% of the time and less than 10 ° 39% of the time. The mean Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score increased but not significantly, and backrest elevation had no direct effect on mean scores. A model for predicting the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score at day 4 included baseline score, percentage of time spent at less than 30 ° on study day 1, and score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, explaining 81% of the variability (F=7. 1, P=. 003). Literature Search 3 †¢ Conclusions Subjects spent the majority of the time at backrest elevations less than 30 °. Only the combination of early, low backrest elevation and severity of illness affected the incidenc e of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Amelia Ross. (2006). The impact of an evidence-based practice education program on the role of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Retrieved from, www. elsevierhealth. com/journals/iccn. on March 2, 2012.Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence in the literature on the role of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), nurses continue to view oral care as a comfort measure with low priority and utilize foam swabs rather than toothbrushes. Although an evidence-based oral care protocol existed and best-practice oral care tools were available, the VAP rates had not significantly decreased even though nurses reported providing oral care. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to determine if an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational program would improve the quality of oral care delivered to mechanically ventilated patients; thereby, reducing the VAP rate. RESULTS: Improvement in oral health was demonstrated by a decrease in median scores on the Oral Assessment Guide (pre (11. 0), post (9. 0)). A t-test analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (p=0. 0002). The frequency of oral care documentation also improved as demonstrated by a positive shift to the more frequent timeframes. The VAP rates have decreased by 50% following the EBP education Literature Search 4 ntervention. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of an EBP educational program focused on patient outcome rather than a task to be performed improved the quality of oral care delivered by the nursing staff. Carolyn L. , Cason, Tracy, Tyner. , Sue, Saunders, Lisa, Broom. , 2007. Nurses Implementation of Guidelines for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. AACN. Retrieved from ajcc. aacnjournals. org on March 1, 2012. Abstract †¢ Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia accounts for 47% of infections in patients in intensive care units.Adherence to t he best nursing practices recommended in the 2003 guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. †¢ Objective To evaluate the extent to which nurses working in intensive care units implement best practices when managing adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation. †¢ Methods Nurses attending education seminars in the United States completed a 29-item questionnaire about the type and frequency of care provided. †¢ Results Twelve hundred nurses completed the questionnaire.Most (82%) reported compliance with hand-washing guidelines, 75% reported wearing gloves, half reported elevating the head of the bed, a third reported performing subglottic suctioning, and half reported having an oral care protocol in their hospital. Nurses in hospitals with an oral care protocol reported better compliance with hand washing and maintaining head-of-bed el evation, were more likely to regularly provide oral care, and were more familiar with rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and the organisms involved than were nurses working in hospitals without such protocols.Literature Search5 †¢ Conclusions The guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are not consistently or uniformly implemented. Practices of nurses employed in hospitals with oral care protocols are more often congruent with the guidelines than are practices of nurses employed in hospitals without such protocols. Significant reductions in rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia may be achieved by broader implementation of oral care protocols. Grap, Mary. ,Munro, Cindy. , Hummel, Russel. , Jessica. Elswick, and Sessler Curtis. 2005. Effect of Backrest Elevation on the Development of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia. AACN. Retrieved from ajcc. aacnjournals. org on March 3, 2012. Abstract †¢ Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a common complication of mechanical ventilation. Backrest position and time spent supine are critical risk factors for aspiration, increasing the risk for pneumonia. Empirical evidence of the effect of backrest positions on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, especially during mechanical ventilation over time, is limited. Objective To describe the relationship between backrest elevation and development of ventilator-associated pneumonia. †¢ Methods : It is a nonexperimental, longitudinal, descriptive design was used. The Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score was used to determine ventilator-associated pneumonia. Backrest elevation was measured continuously with a transducer system. Data were obtained from laboratory results and medical records from the start of mechanical ventilation up to 7 days. †¢ Results Sixty-six subjects were monitored (276 patient days).Mean backrest elevation for the entire study period was 2 1. 7 °. Backrest elevations were less than 30 ° 72% of the time and less than 10 ° 39% of the time. The mean Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score increased but not significantly, and backrest elevation had no direct effect on mean scores. A model for predicting the Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score at day 4 included baseline score, percentage of time spent at less than 30 ° on study day 1, and score on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, explaining 81% of the variability (F=7. 1, P=. 003). Literature Search 3 †¢ Conclusions Subjects spent the majority of the time at backrest elevations less than 30 °. Only the combination of early, low backrest elevation and severity of illness affected the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Amelia Ross. (2006). The impact of an evidence-based practice education program on the role of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Retrieved from, www. elsevierhealth. com/journals/iccn. on March 2, 2012.Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite strong evidence in the literature on the role of oral care in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), nurses continue to view oral care as a comfort measure with low priority and utilize foam swabs rather than toothbrushes. Although an evidence-based oral care protocol existed and best-practice oral care tools were available, the VAP rates had not significantly decreased even though nurses reported providing oral care. OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to determine if an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational program would improve the quality of oral care delivered to mechanically ventilated patients; thereby, reducing the VAP rate. RESULTS: Improvement in oral health was demonstrated by a decrease in median scores on the Oral Assessment Guide (pre (11. 0), post (9. 0)). A t-test analysis revealed a statistically significant difference (p=0. 0002). The frequency of oral care documentation also improved as demonstrated by a positive shift to the more frequent timeframes. The VAP rates have decreased by 50% following the EBP education Literature Search 4 ntervention. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of an EBP educational program focused on patient outcome rather than a task to be performed improved the quality of oral care delivered by the nursing staff. Carolyn L. , Cason, Tracy, Tyner. , Sue, Saunders, Lisa, Broom. , 2007. Nurses Implementation of Guidelines for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. AACN. Retrieved from ajcc. aacnjournals. org on March 1, 2012. Abstract †¢ Background Ventilator-associated pneumonia accounts for 47% of infections in patients in intensive care units.Adherence to the best nursing practices recommended in the 2003 guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should reduce the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia. †¢ Objective To evaluate the extent to which nurses working in intensive care units implement best practices when managing adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation. †¢ Methods Nurses attending education seminars in the United States completed a 29-item questionnaire about the type and frequency of care provided. †¢ Results Twelve hundred nurses completed the questionnaire.Most (82%) reported compliance with hand-washing guidelines, 75% reported wearing gloves, half reported elevating the head of the bed, a third reported performing subglottic suctioning, and half reported having an oral care protocol in their hospital. Nurses in hospitals with an oral care protocol reported better compliance with hand washing and maintaining head-of-bed elevation, were more likely to regularly provide oral care, and were more familiar with rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia and the organisms involved than were nurses working in hospitals without such protocols.Literature Search5 †¢ Conclusions Th e guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are not consistently or uniformly implemented. Practices of nurses employed in hospitals with oral care protocols are more often congruent with the guidelines than are practices of nurses employed in hospitals without such protocols. Significant reductions in rates of ventilator-associated pneumonia may be achieved by broader implementation of oral care protocols.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

The Right To Bear Arms - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 1 Words: 442 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/03/20 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Gun Control Essay Second Amendment Essay Did you like this example? In the United States we have the Constitution it is like the Commandments in the Christian Bible, Quran or the Torah. God created 10 Commandments of divine rules that would govern their lives of his people to the right pathway. The Constitution was also written to set some rules and rights. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Right To Bear Arms" essay for you Create order There are 27 Constitutional Amendments but the first 10 amendments were written over 200 years ago. There is one particular amendment that is spoken and debated about to this day and that is the Second Amendment which states: A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Some argue that this amendment protects our right to own a gun, but is not very clear. Over the years the second amendment has become a huge debate over gun control and gun rights. In recently there has been mass shootings in this country. Along with mass shootings, it has always had to deal with homicides and suicides with the hands of guns. This is a cause of all the gun violence this country has been facing for many years and they need a way to help prevent gun violence or even suppress the amount of deaths faced by these tragedies. Guns are responsible for thirty-three thousand deaths in the United States annually, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A person is killed by a gun about every 4 minutes, 90 people are killed in a average day and 634 are killed every week. In 2014, the CDC reported that 11,008 of the 15,872 homicides committed in the United States that year involved a firearm. Of the 42,826 suicides reported that year, 21,386 involved a firearm. That means gun violence is out of control, and anyone can be next. In fact theres been an increase of mass murders occurring everywhere due to guns. Which has brought the issue of gun violence in our nation. They say guns are for protection, but in reality there seems to be more murders associated with guns. There is an argument that its their constitutional right to bear arms, but others argue that there needs to be better gun control. Both side have strong debate opinions. People that want more control say that if only we regulated and banned guns like Europe there wouldnt be any more gun violence. Conservatives insist that its their constitutional right to bear arms, the right to own any and all guns without the government regulation. Gun violence has been increasing in our nation, as many i nnocent people had been killed. Since guns does no good for our nation other than kill the innocence.

Saturday, December 28, 2019

The Role of The Parents and Family in Socialization Research Paper

Introduction Parents play a very critical role when it comes to socializing the children to what they become in future.   The earliest form agent of socialization is the family and this is also the most influential.   The family starts socializing the child from birth, when the child has not developed any form of socialization. The child internalizes the information they come across within the family environment through interactions with parents, role modeling and also reinforcement of behaviors that are desirable through parental approval and disapproval. Parental socialization is very important because it is the foundation of all civil behavior because it is in the family where children learn behaviors like language, body and emotional control, rules of public conduct and moral values. Besides a person’s future self esteem, emotional health and personality are shaped early enough by parents. Parenting Style and Its Correlates The article focuses on the two critical elements of parenting which are parental responsiveness and demanandigness (Darling, 1999).   According to her, since the turn of the 20th century developmental psychologists have been interested in how the children’s social and instrumental development has been influenced by parents.   She explores different parenting styles which she has categorized on whether parents belong to the low or high level range when it comes to parental responsiveness and demandingness. These four types of parenting styles include indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative and uninvolved (2). Darling defines parenting as a complex activity whereby different behavior patterns work together to influence how a child will be in future.   Thus, it is not possible to look at a specific child’s behavior in isolation as influencing a child’s overall well being.   Responsiveness as a parental style has to do with those parents who are warm and supportive and shows the extent through which parents deliberately foster individual development, self –assertion and self-regulation of their children by attuning, supporting and being acquiescent to the special needs and demands of their children (Erikson, 1985).   On the other hand, parental demandingness has to do with controlling the behavior of the children to make them integrate in the family through supervision, disciplinary efforts, demanding them to be mature and confronting the children when they disobey (Barber, 1996). The different parenting styles are as a result of patterns of parental and practices values that occur naturally and a balance of the responsiveness and demandingness. Indulgent parents are those who are permissive or nondirective and their way of parenting is more responsive.   Their approach to parenting is nontraditional and lenient mature behavior is not required and it focuses more on self-regulation and a conscientious committed approach to the children. On the other hand, authoritarian parents approach to parenting is highly demanding and directive and is not responsive (Klein, 1984).   To them, they expect their children to be obedient and expect them to obey rules without explanation.   There are clearly stated rules some of these parents’ ways of parenting can border intrusive and autocratic, while others are less authoritative.   Authoritative parents use an approach that is demanding and responsive.   They monitor their children’s conduct and impar t standards that are clear. Their approach is more assertive and less intrusive and they apply disciplinary methods that are more supportive and less castigatory.   Finally, uninvolved parents are low when it comes to responsiveness and demandingness. Their style in most extreme cases might include parents who reject and neglect their children, but most parents in this category seem to fall within the normal range. She concludes that each type of parenting styles leads to different outcomes in children. How a child develops social competence, academic skills and psychosocial development is highly correlated to how they were parented.   For example, children of parents who are authoritative grow up to develop better social and instrumental competencies as compared to those parents whose approach is not authoritative.   Also, children who grow up with parents who are uninvolved perform poorly in most areas of their life. My parents’ style of parenting was authoritarian.   They expected us children to obey the rules they had set without asking questions.   For example, it was mandatory that after school, we finish all our homework before doing anything else like going out to play. Not doing that would lead to strict punishment and being grounded.   They were very strict on the kind of people we related with and did not want us to socialize with other children whom they thought would be bad influences to our character. This type of parenting played a key role in how we were socialized in our family.   As I grew up, I came to appreciate the importance of discipline in everyday life. However, I had difficulties during my adolescence since the kind of parenting did not impart me with effective communication skills and had problems interacting with my fellow teens.   Nonetheless, I was able to overcome with time. Conclusion The type of parenting styles in families serves an effective way of predicting how a child will grow up and behave in future. Parental socialization is very important because it is it enables children to develop certain competencies that have a big bearing on their future lives. Each type of parenting serves an important role in a child’s life, whether it is responsiveness or demandngness.   Thus, the important thing is how to find the balance that will enable a child to grow up and become a better socialized person in future. References: Barber, B. (1996). Parental psychological control: Revisiting a neglected construct. Child Development, 67(5), 3297-3318. Darling, N (1999). Parenting Style and Its Correlates. Chicago: ERIC Publications. Erikson, E. (1985). Childhood and society. 35th anniversary ed. New York: W.W. Norto Klein, M. (1984). The Psychoanalysis of Children. London: Hogarth

Friday, December 20, 2019

Essay on Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning - 2440 Words

Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning New areas of science often raise questions about safety. Reflecting back on the past medical technologies invented, people have always opposed it but often benefit from it later on in life. The use of in-vitro fertilization, for instance, was once a controversial issue. Some people worried that society could discriminate against humans produced as a result of IVF and humans could spread diseases. Furthermore, its usefulness cannot be predicted because it is just a research tool, and so on. Today, those worries and concerns have not manifested, but instead have brought joy and happiness to families. The people born through IVF process are as happy and equal as any other average child. It is†¦show more content†¦Reproductive cloning is a technology used to generate an animal that has the same nuclear DNA as another currently or previously existing animal. And Therapeutic cloning, also called embryo cloning, is the production of human embryos for use in research and gen e therapy. People base their arguments concerning cloning off of norms, and with that, they ignore the possible benefits of this technology. Cloning technology may possibly benefit us in a lot of ways. It could potentially be used to reverse heart attacks, infertility, treat defective genes, and treat brain damage such as Alzheimer and Parkinson. With all the benefits behind this technology, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning should be legalized for research, experiments, and future use. Reproductive cloning technology may provide a way for completely sterile individuals (those not capable of producing gametes) to reproduce a child with identical genetic make up as their own. It might be more reliable than current infertility treatments and in-vitro-fertilization (IVF). As explained by Smith: Despite getting a fair amount of publicity in the news current treatments for infertility, in terms of percentages, are not very successful. One estimate is that current infertility treatments are less than 10 percent successful. Couples go through physically and emotionally painful procedures for a small chance of havingShow MoreRelatedEssay on Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning1472 Words   |  6 PagesThere are two types of cloning, one of them is reproductive cloning which is when a whole organism is cloned and therapeutic cloning is the cloning of cells, organs or tissues. Cloning is when two cells decide or are forced to duplicate into two cells to replicate each other. Cloning can be done deliberately or naturally; and it results in two copies having identical cells, DNA, genes, organs and organisms. Cloning is a common, ongoing, debatable topic among society today. Many people argue aboutRead More Reproductive and Therapeutic Cloning Essay example1484 Words   |  6 Pa gesReproductive and Therapeutic Cloning Cloning is defined as the â€Å"creation of an exact copy of a living matter, such as a cell or organism† according to Encarta encyclopedia. The copies produced through cloning have identical genetic makeup and are known as clones. Scientists use cloning techniques in the laboratory to create copies of cells or organisms with valuable traits. Cloning is a controversial topic because new areas of science often raise questions about safety. Early experimentRead MoreReproductive and Therapeutic Cloning: Dolly The Sheep1468 Words   |  6 Pagesbeen an increase in the methods in which DNA, Reproductive and Therapeutic cloning and the processes that happen in order for cloning to occur. DNA Cloning occurs when the DNA cell is replicated, an organisms DNA is taken and placed in a Vector also known as plasmid. This self-replicating cell will then create copies of the DNA code. After being placed into a foreign host cell that is suitable for the DNA the cell will then reproduced. Reproductive cloning in some aspects of the developing stages isRead MoreIs Cloning Ethical Or Moral?1617 Words   |  7 PagesCloning is one of the most controversial topics in all of science in the current day. Technology has come miles from where it has been, and we still have yet to perfect how it is used. When I chose this topic as one of the two I had to pick from the list, I didn’t really know how cloning worked or how I actually felt about the on-going conversation of whether or not cloning is ethical or moral, much less legal. What I have come to conclude after the various articles I have read, and the differentRead MoreThe Human Of Human Cloning1100 Words   |  5 PagesHuman Cloning 1. INTRODUCTION Human  cloning  is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. However, this term not only refers to the entire artificial human, but also the reproduction of human cells and tissues. There are two types of theoretical human cloning: reproductive cloning which would involve making an entire cloned human and the other, therapeutic cloning, which would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants by somatic-cell nuclear transfer orRead MoreShould Human Cloning Be Pursued? Essay810 Words   |  4 Pagessome movies, cloning in real life doesn’t produce a full grown exact replica of someone. A type of cloning that occurs naturally is when identical twins are born (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a type of cloning that has to be done in a lab. In SCNT they take the nucleolus out of an egg cell, replace it with the nucleolus of a somatic cell (body cell with two complete sets of chromosomes), and mak e the egg cell divide into a blastocyst (â€Å"What Is Cloning?†). There areRead MoreThe Human Of Human Cloning1098 Words   |  5 Pages1. INTRODUCTION Human  cloning  is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. However, this term not only refers to the entire artificial human, but also the reproduction of human cells and tissues. There are two types of theoretical human cloning: reproductive cloning which would involve making an entire cloned human and the other, therapeutic cloning, which would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants by somatic-cell nuclear transfer or pluripotent stemRead MoreShould Cloning Be Allowed?1440 Words   |  6 Pageshuman cloning is becoming a feasible practice. Recently there has been a successful cloning of a sheep, so scientists start to speculate the different uses of cloning human embryos. The three forms of cloning that stand out are reproductive cloning, therapeutic cloning, and cloning for scientific research. Cloning should be permitted, but only reproductive cloning should be permitted with a limit on the number of babies a person or family can reproduce. The arguments that support cloning dependRead MoreWhy Is Cloning? Living A Wonderful Life?1668 Words   |  7 PagesWhy Cloning? Imagine living a wonderful life. A life full of friends and loving relationships. A healthy life. Celebrating holidays with friends and families and finally starting to fall in love with the person might†. Then all of a sudden your wonderful life comes to a screeching halt when you go to the doctor and is diagnosed with HIV, a fatal disease with no cure. You’re now faced with countless decisions such as whether or not you want to be heavily medicated. More medications could lead toRead MoreLiving A Wonderful Life : A Life Full Of Friends And Loving Relationships1666 Words   |  7 Pagesup. Cloning could provide an efficient way to find resistance and cures to diseases while providing an option to infertile couples. Human cloning is the process of using nuclear transfer, (a process of dna transfer) to a human cell in order to grow human cells. Human cloning is necessary and inevitable and research in the fields of reproductive and therapeutic cloning should continue to develop. Human cloning should be legal because reproductive cloning is inevitable and therapeutic cloning provides